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「報馬仔」裝備的文化意涵和精神

Posted On By 玉 女

【記者 JAZ 台中 報導】

每次媽祖遶境出巡,「報馬仔」乃是媽祖的駕前先鋒,在媽祖出巡期間,報馬仔會沿途敲鑼,告訴信眾遶境隊伍即將抵達,他還擔任著整理隊伍,以防拖延而零散的任務。「報馬仔」所穿服飾其實深具含意,寓意著媽祖「知足、長善、感恩、惜福」的四大精神。報馬仔每項附掛物皆有含意,其文化意涵和精神,分別說明如下:

◎紅纓帽:為笠帽,清朝尖哨兵所戴的帽子,報馬仔戴上此帽後,期望能體認軍令如山、軍紀嚴謹,擔任者應嚴守崗位,認清本份,不可怠慢。戴在頭上是頂天立地,負責盡職。
◎老花眼鏡:戴上能認清並看透人世間是非曲直,以明辨是非,另一意為看破世間情。
◎無仁眼鏡:無鏡片閩南語稱無仁,隱喻做人不可目中無人。
◎八字燕尾鬚:燕子每年定期回來築巢繁殖後代,表示誠信,鬍鬚與於嘴唇之上,乃說話之處,隱喻為言而有信。另外口有鬍鬚,口為頭,長辮有尾,勉勵做人要有頭有尾賺家伙,始終如一不可半途而廢。諧音「言非虛」,寓意言而有信。
◎旱煙桿:報馬仔休息時會抽旱煙,口中「含煙」與閩南語「感恩」諧音,勸化世人常存感恩的心。
◎煙袋:煙是香火,隱含媽祖「知足、長善、感恩、惜福」濟世精神,要代代相傳。
◎反穿羊襖:報馬仔須長途跋涉非常辛苦,反穿為背面,「背」與「備」諧音,「熬」與「襖」諧音,故曰「備受煎熬」;「備受煎熬」可以知人情冷暖,並帶給他人溫暖,「無私送暖」。
◎銅鑼:「鑼」與閩南語「勞」諧音,報馬仔的工作是勞心又勞力,「銅鑼心」喻為「同勞心」,同心勞心勞力。
◎肩荷長紙傘:「雨傘」與「語善」諧音,「長傘」與「長善」諧音,「紙傘」與「直善」諧音,勸世人要長期行善、做人正直、和善積德。
◎韭菜:「韭」諧音「久」,「長長久久」,表示友情、感情、恩情,永無止盡,天長地久之意。
◎錫壺:「錫壺」諧音「惜福」,懂得「惜福祈福」。
◎壽酒:「壽酒」諧音「壽久」,喝壽酒可長命百歲。
◎豬足:「豬足」與閩南語「知足」諧音,意涵後代子孫應懂得知足常樂的道理。
◎紅線:報馬仔所攜帶的紅絲線原本是報馬仔用來綁豬腳及其他物品東西之用,這幾年來也成為未婚男女求取婚緣感情的「姻緣線」,也可以給小朋友或大人戴在手上保平安。
◎上下鈕扣錯扣:不計形象,歡喜做甘願受。
◎捲起褲管一高一低:表示人生坎坷,不道人長短。
◎腳生瘡疤:此處不但暗喻「勿揭人瘡疤」,告誡人們要記取每一次的失敗經驗,不再重蹈覆轍犯下相同錯誤。三處瘡疤代表天知、地知、我知,用來規勸世人為人處事不僅天知、地知,更重要的是自己內心要知。
◎腳貼膏藥:不揭人瘡疤。
◎單腳穿草鞋:犧牲奉獻,不計酬勞,勤於做事,即使鞋子掉了也渾然不知,等到休息時才發現掉一隻;而另一足赤腳,暗指世路不平,自己的路要自己去走出來。
◎赤腳:腳踏實地。
◎腳趾:赤腳看到五趾都在,表示吾在,活著就有希望。

雖然各地習俗不同,報馬仔的裝備不一定相同,但其勸勉人向善的文化精神,始終沒有變過。

(本文作者為 社團法人台中市名門命理教育協會 創會理事長 楊登嵙 教授)

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