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農曆六月初七日「天門開」「補年中運」

Posted On By 玉 女

【記者 JAZ 台中 報導】

玉皇大帝,俗稱「天公」,其位居玄穹,上掌三十三天,總樞百神,下握七十二地、四大部洲、億萬生靈,在民間信仰中,是一位至高無上的神祇。民間傳說農曆正月初九日是玉皇大帝的誕辰,六月初七日是玉帝成道稱帝的日子,都是祭拜上天的隆重典禮。

今年7月27日農曆六月初七日玉帝成道稱帝,盛傳會「天門開」,「天門開」就是天上玉皇大帝這一天天門大開,三界十方神仙都要上天為玉帝拜賀。而民間百姓往往趁這一天,祭拜天公,一來酬謝天公半年來的保佑與賜福,二來乞求天公感念誠意,繼續降福降貴,稱之為「做半年」,被視為補運的好日子,又稱為「補年中運」,最後到了十月十五日「下元節」以後,再來做「謝平安」,感謝上天一年來的庇佑。

由於俗信在「天門開」這一天行補運比較有效,因此每到6月初6日夜裡(農曆在晚上11點就是新的一天開始,稱為子時。)到隔天上午,廟裏也特別熱鬧,許多宮廟也因應信眾補運的需求而整夜不關廟門。台灣民間的補運習俗做法各地略有差異,以北部地區為例,最簡單的方式就是民眾自行到寺廟祭拜,另外也會到聘有駐廟道士的廟宇,請道長、法師代為主持儀式。民眾自行到寺廟祭拜補運,需自備或是向廟宇購買祭品,一般會依照信眾家中男丁女口的人數而準備幾個男女替身,以及一份補運錢,一份米糕(上有一顆龍眼),並按照人數備妥相同數目龍眼乾,擺在祭品盤中祭拜,敬備金紙、水果、餅乾、壽麵等一起祭拜,祈求上天為信眾消災祈福,等到上香祭拜完後,將替身、金紙一起焚化掉。再將龍眼殼剝下,象徵「脫殼脫離離」,將過去的霉運一起去除的意思,並給每位家屬吃下屬於他(她)的那一顆龍眼(福圓),象徵福氣圓滿的意思。這類補運習俗目前在行天宮、艋舺龍山寺、大龍峒保安宮、迪化街霞海城隍廟等許多廟宇都相當盛行。

追求平安、吉祥、幸福、富貴一向是民間普遍的心理,尤其在運途不順、身體欠安時,許多民眾總會祈求神明幫忙來加持、保佑,六月初七日「天門開」,在這天許願、祈福會特別靈驗!因為這天是向上天祈求下半年的第一個願望,願望特別容易實現。

這天除了補運外,還有將書籍、衣服等拿出來曝曬的習俗,稱為「曬黴」,這種習俗早在宋代就有了,台灣則稱為「皇帝曝龍袍」。據說這天曬過的衣服,就不會被蟲咬壞,同時這天替貓、狗洗澡,也可以除蟲治病。不過時至今日,「皇帝曬龍袍」和該日替貓狗洗澡的習俗,早已不復見到了。

(本文作者為社團法人台中市名門命理教育協會創會理事長楊登嵙教授)

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