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2020年農曆正月初九拜天公禁忌

【記者 JAZ 台中 報導】

壹、天公生的緣由:
民間除了平日的早晚燒香、頂禮膜拜之外,舉凡結婚、做大壽時都要拜天公,農曆正月初九是天上最高神明玉皇大帝的聖誕,俗稱「天日」;臺灣閩南稱之為「天公生」,意思就是天公的生日。

玉皇大帝起源於上古對天帝的祟拜,和民間敬天畏地的思想有著密切關係,古人對不可理解的日、月、星辰、風、雨、雷、電、及山川都視之為神明,並進一步想像諸多自然神之上,總該有一位最高神以支配萬物;到了殷商時天帝便應運而生了,也是古代宗教由多神崇拜向主神祟拜過渡階段的產物,當時稱「帝」或「上帝」,具有極大的權威,殷人認為上帝能管理日、月、風、雨等一切自然現象,並用以影響人間的禍福;也能定人的生死、謀事的成敗、吉凶等。

玉皇大帝為民間所崇敬最高之神,也是統轄一切天神、地祇及人鬼的宇宙主宰,我國自古歷朝都有「祭天」的儀式,但只有帝王才有有資格祭祀,於每年冬至這天舉行祭拜玉皇大帝的大典—郊祀,冬至乃一陽來復之日,南為陽之正位,故祭天恒在南郊,直到封建時代結束,民間才始祭祀玉帝,遂漸成了民間崇拜的最高神,舊時民宅在正廳的大樑上,必懸有一「天公爐」,可見民間對玉帝的尊敬是何等的深入。

玉皇大帝亦即上古時的昊天上帝,簡稱為「上帝」或「玉帝」,又稱為「天公祖」、「玉天大帝」、「皇天上帝」、「昊天金闕玉皇大帝」等,道經則多稱為「玉皇大天尊」及「玄穹高上帝」,全銜為「太上開天執符禦歷含真體道昊天玉皇上帝」。統禦諸天,綜領萬聖,主宰宇宙,開化萬天。行天之道,布天之德,造化萬物,濟度群生。權衡三界,總禦萬靈,而無量度人。為天界至尊之神,萬天帝王也。」簡而言之認為玉帝總管三界﹙天界、地界、水界﹚、十方﹙東、南、西、北、東南、東北、西南、西北、上、下﹚、四生﹙胎生、卵生、濕生、化生﹚、六道﹙天、人、魔、地獄、畜生、餓鬼﹚的一切運命與禍福。

據說正月初九這個日子也是有來歷的,正月為一年之初、四季之首,木氣之始,一切生命因而萌發;而「九」是個神秘而又神聖的數字,在古代「九」常是表大數、多數的虛數,也作為極數和最大數。玉帝生於正月初九日者,陽數始於一,而極於九,原始要終也。」因此,道教便把農曆正月初九這個極尊的日子定為玉帝的誕辰。

貳、祭拜天公的時間:
一般祭拜天公的時間在農曆正月初九凌晨子時一到(十一點至一點)今年國曆109年2月1日晚上23點便可開始,直到翌日清晨七點以前,俗傳因為天公的神格非常尊貴,因此越早敬供越有誠意。

參、祭拜方式:
一、正式:供桌又分「頂桌」和「下桌」,一般居民在家正式祭祀天公時,一律要在正廳「天公爐」下或戶外沒有遮蔽的地方擺設祭壇,桌旁兩側各用紅線拴上一枝甘蔗,祈求錢財能夠節節高升;供桌又分「頂桌」和「下桌」,「頂桌」是給玉皇大帝的,相傳玉帝茹齋禁葷,因此全為素食,墊金紙把八仙桌墊高,再系在兩條長凳上,並在桌前繫上吉祥圖案的桌圍,上面供奉三個燈座﹙三官大帝:天官、地官、水官﹚,神位用紅綢墨書而成,前面為香爐,兩邊為燭台,爐前放紮著紅紙的麵線塔﹙紮紅紙麵線三束也可﹚,排列五果﹙柑、橘、鳳梨、蘋果、李子、香蕉等任取五樣﹚、六齋﹙金針、桂圓、菜心、香菇、綠豆、海帶、木耳、菀豆等任取六樣﹚,前設清茶三杯。

在頂桌底面另置一桌,謂之「下桌」為供奉玉皇大帝從神所設,除五牲﹙雞、鴨、魚、豬肉或豬肚、豬肝﹚外,還有糕仔、米棗、生仁、紅龜稞等。﹙見照片1.2﹚

二、簡單式:供桌沒有「頂桌」和「下桌」,只有單一平面,在家門口外沒有遮蔽的的地方設供桌,就像平常拜門口一樣,只有平常的供桌,但為求尊崇之意,會在供桌的四隻腳底下墊上壽金,供品一定要素的,絕對不可以拜葷食!一般是5種水果。

肆、準備金紙:
天金、大壽金、壽金、刈金、土地公金(合稱「五色金」)、甲馬、白錢、金錢(或稱「黃錢」)

伍、祭拜天公程序
拜天公時也可放些吉祥的音樂,以增添些熱鬧,全家人穿戴整齊,上供品後點燭﹙燈﹚、獻茶﹙酒﹚,焚香迎神﹙一柱或三柱香﹚,囗訣「天公祖,今日是正月初九,是天公祖生,信男﹙女﹚***、住址***,誠心誠意準備五果六齋、五牲、糕仔、紅龜稞與金銀財寶、香燭來敬奉天公祖,求天公祖在新的一年保佑信男(信女)******」,並依長幼順序挨個上香,行三跪九叩禮,現代一般信眾則往往只有上香祝禱而已,祭拜完畢則焚燒燈座和天公金等,燃放鞭炮之後再撤去供桌,儀式便結束。

陸、祭祀天公的禁忌
天公因為神格至尊,唯恐有所瀆辱,祭禮中有些禁忌必須遵守:
一、首先祭祀前一律都要齋戒沐浴。
二、有「頂桌」和「下桌」的正式祭祀,「頂桌」一定是素食或水果,「下桌」牲禮中的所獻的全雞必需是閹過的公雞,鳳頭雞、白毛雞、母雞均不能用,以示對天公的尊敬;
三、簡單式祭祀供品一定是素食或水果,不可以葷食。
四、燒給天公的金箔也與其他神明不同,需用特製的大型「天公金」﹙大壽金紙﹚,比一般金紙大一倍以上。
五、祭祀當日禁止屠宰。
六、不能曝曬女性的內衣褲及傾倒便桶,以免不敬。
七、也禁忌男人揹水、做飯,據說如此可能罹患疾病。
八、更不可口出髒話穢語,以免褻瀆了尊貴的天公而受到處罰。

(本文作者為 社團法人台中市名門命理教育協會 創會理事長 楊登嵙 教授)

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